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若何懂得先生的深度进修——“全景式数学”讲授团队基于先生深度进修的理论与思虑
宣布时辰: 2020-08-12 来历:中国教导报

shendujinxiushibilaijinianjiaodaojiedeyigereci。shizai,shendujinxiuyuanshijixiejinxiuzhongdeyigeguandian,yuanyuyeshengshenjingshoujidezuanyan,tichudeniantouzaiyuchengli、monirennaoezhichanfajinxiudeshenjingshouji,fangzhaorennaodejizhilaiquanshishuju。

juehou,shendujinxiubeiyizhidaolejiaodaojiangshoufanchou,minjiefengxing。keshi,jiaodaojiangshouzhongren(xiansheng)deshendujinxiuneizaijiujingshishenme?daojinchaoweizhi,haibudabai、tongyidejieding,wangshangdebaikecitiaoyejinjinnengjiansuodaojixiejinxiuzhongshendujinxiudeguandian,buduiyurenshendujinxiudejieshuo。shangmian,woyijiangtanglilunweili,tantan“quanjingshishuxue”jiangshoutuanduiduiren(xiansheng)shendujinxiudedongdeheshuxi。

zanmenyiwei,rendeshendujinxiuyingdangjuyouyixiagenjitese。

一、深度进修应当是沿袭进修者身心生长和迷信认知纪律的进修

rendeshendujinxiugoudangyingshijiyujiaodaojiangshoujilv、xinsixue、naomixindengmixinshexiangbingzhengkaidejinxiugoudang。buguanshiqijinxiuneirong、nanyishuiping、jinxiuqiangdu、jinxiutili,rengshijinxiudehuanjing、shichen、jiepaidengshenfen,doubixuyujinxiuzhedechunqiutese、shenxinshengzhangshuipingjirenzhitesefuhehe,zheishishendujinxiudeqianti。kuayueren(xiansheng)renzhicainengdejinxiushihennanwanchengshendurenzhide,naizhihuixianxianmaobingderenzhi。

bifang,youershianzhaoganchuganranlaishuxishiwu、gouchengguandiande。yaoranghaizichengliheshuxi“baise”zheigeguandian,ruoshizanmennayiduobaisedehuabushigaozhihaizi:zheishi“baise”。zheishichen,haizixinliganchuganrandezhuzhonglihennenggouhuoxujujiaozaihuadexingzhuangshang,jiangshoudeguandianyuhaizixinlideganchuganrannenggouhuoxubingbuhunpei!yebianshishuo,haizichucidongdedebaiseguandianyuzanmenyaojiaojitadebaiseguandiandizibushiyihuishi。zhunquedezuofashi,zanmenjihaizitongshixianxiancaizhiwanquanyiyangzhiyaosecaichabiedejikuaiseban(bifangbaise、lansehebaise),zaiduizhaozhongbushifanfugaozhihaizi:zheishibaise,zheishilanse,zheishibaise。ruxuzuidahuajiechusecaiyiwaiqiyushenfendejiaorao,nenggouhuoxujiheganchuganran“secai”,gengqingyichengliqiduiyubaisedeguandian。xianshishang,buzhishiyouer,xiaoxianshengduihenduoguandiandejinxiuyeshiyouyupinfaduirenzhijilv、renzhimixindezhuzhongheliyong,daozhitamenxinzhongdeguandianyuzanmendongdede、danyuanxianshengguantongdeguandiancunzaichabie。erduiguandiandongdeheshuxidechabie,changchangshigoucheng“hubudongde”dezhuyaoyuanyou。

二、深度进修应当是进修者深切懂得进修工具(题目情境)本身的进修

yaowanchengjinxiuzhedeshendujinxiu,jinxiuzheyaoduizuanyangongju(timuqingjing)benshenezhizhouquan、shenqie、wanquandedongde。tongshi,haiyaodongdeyuqixianggandebeijing、huanjingdengshenfen。renzhiyaoshendudongdeletimubenshen,caiyoushenduchulizheigetimudenenggouhuoxu。bifang,wozaiyicishendujinxiuzuanyanhuishangzhijiaode《getiepi》。zhengjiekezhihuanraoyigetimuqingjingzhengkai:“yizhangzhangfangxingtiepi,zhang20limi,kuan15limi。congzheikuaitiepishangjiandiaoyigebianzhang5limidezhengfangxingtiepianhou,shengxiatiepidezhouzhangshijiduo?”xianshengdianmo3citiyidongdecaidabai,“congzheikuaitiepijianxia”hanyoubukendingxinxi——jianxiadediweinenggouhuoxuzaiyigejiaoshang,yenenggouhuoxuzaiyigebianshang,yenenggouhuoxuzaitiepizhongjian。

xianshengzhiyaoduizheigebukendingdexinxiyouleshendudongde,bingqiongjinzheigetimumianqiandeyiqienenggouhuoxu,cainengzhenzhengshenqiedongdetimubenshen,houxudetimushenduchulihefenleijianmocaiyounenggouhuoxu。shiyi,congmouzhongyisishangjiang,shuxuejinxiudeshendubianshiduitimubenshenjixiangganyinsudefamingshuiping、dongdeshuiping、fenjieshuiping……

三、深度进修应当是周全、完全、丰硕的进修

zanmenchangchanghuishuodeyigecijiao“zhouquanshenqie”,burenshuo“shenqiezhouquan”。weishenme“zhouquan”yaofangzai“shenqie”houmian?youyuzhiyaorenduiyigeshiwudeshuxizhouquanle、wanquanle,cainengzhenzhengwanchengshenqie。danfangmiandeshenqiejinxiubushishizaideshendujinxiu。

yixiangyutimuweili,zanmenfangqileyizhishenme、qiushenmetimudedangelitishidejinxiutili,ershijianjiejixianshengyigekaifang、jinnenggouhuoxuxuejianshufuqiantidedaqingjing:“jiayiliangrenbieliconga、bliangditongshidongshen,xiangxiangerxing”,xianrangxianshengduixiangxiangerxingdegeleijingxiangezhicaice,xianshengjingyouguochengxianshixiuhui、xuejumonidengtili,xianxiangquanle“mianlinmian、beiduibei、tongxiangerxing”desanzhongyangtai,jiezhezhaoquanlemianlinmianerxing4leimozi,jiqiahaoxiangyu:sjia+syi=sab,buxiangyu:sjia+syi+skong=sab;xiangyuguoshen(meichujie):sjia+syi-szhong=sab,xiangyuguoshen(chujie):sjia+syi-szhong-sjiachao-syichao=sab

ruxutamenjiuduixiangyutimuyoulezhouquan、wanquanhetixihua、bujuhuadeshenqieshuxi,bingweihouxujinyibuduixiangyutimugegelitideshendujinxiudianjilegenben。

四、深度进修应当是进修者完成深度思虑、涉及事物(学科)实质的进修

zaishendujinxiuzhong,jinxiuzhenenglianxiganxi、maitongshiwuyiqieyinsu,nenggouhuoxushenqieshiwudejiaodian,nengpiejianzuanyangongjumianqiangengjiaodiandejubu,dongdeshiwudeshizhi(xuekeshizhi)。bifangjinxiusanshitudeshichen,zanmengouzaoxianshengzaianshiliezhixianshidetouyingcaozong,dianmoqieshenlilunshuxidaosanshitudeshizhishizaibianshiwutidepingxingzhengtouying,wanchenglecongjuxiangdaolongtong、congwaibiaodaoshizhi,shendudongchasanshitudeshizhibianshizuanyanguang、shiwu、yingzisanzhezhijiandeganxi,erzuanyan“xing”he“xingyuxingzhijiandeganxi”qiashishuxuetuxingyuduoshaozuanyandejiaodian。xiangfan,burangjinxiuzhedongdeshizhi、shejishiwujiaodiandejinxiu,biranbushishizaideshendujinxiu。

五、深度进修应当是先生满身心充实自立到场,深度、周全激活多层神经元的进修

zhishangdelaizhongjueqian,juezhicishiyaogongxing。juezhi(jishendujinxiu)bixuchenglizaijinxiuzhedegongxingshang(shizaililunheshenqiedexiuhui)。chuantongdejiangtangjinxiudaduoshi“boziyishangdejinxiu”,xianshenggengduoshikaoting、kan、xiangquxue,dongyongdeduoshitingjueheshijue。quanjingshishuxuejiaodaoyiwei,shendujinxiuyingdangshirangxianshengzhouquanganzhitianxia,zuidahuadirangxianshengyongshencai“wujue”qieshen、zhouquan、wanquanganchuganranquanshutianxiadejiyu,rangxianshengyongquanshudeshenxinxiuhuijinxiu,cushixianshenglengrerenzhixianglianxi、zongheliyongduozhongganguan,chongshijihuogengduodeshenjingyuanpilian,tongshizheileidaochanghejinxiubiranshizifa、zilide,zhudongjinxiuhennanwanchengshizaideshendujinxiu。bifang,“quanjingshishuxue”jiangshoutuanduironghuotianxiadasaitedengjiangdedianfankeli“shejianshangdefenshu”:

xianshengjingyouguochengchiyao、chibing、chitanghulu、hechengzhidenggoudangshuxifenshuhefenshudejuxi。zaizheijiekeshang,xianshengbuzhiyongshijue、tingjue、xinjue,haiyongchujue、weijuedengquanfangweidongdeleshugan,bingqieshenqieshuxilefenshu。

六、深度进修应当是进修者找到“本身”的进修,令人向更高阶、更高条理生长的进修

jinxiuzheduijinxiugongjuderenzhijinjieaiciputongshi“shishenme→zenyangzuo→weishenme”,danbi“weishenme”genggaojiedeshijinxiuzheyaocanwudao“weishenme”mianqiandeluojishishenme,jizheileisilvshizenyangsilvde。shendujinxiudejinxiuzhebuzhiyaocanwudao“weishenme”mianqiandeluoji,bingqiehainenggouhuoxuanzhaojinxiuzhebenshendexuyaohexianshihuanjingezhidiaoji,goucheng“benshen”guaiyiderenzhiluoji,jibenshendailaizhuanbianheshengzhang,congershijinxiuzhezaijinxiuzhongbushizhaodao“benshen”,bingwanchengmouxiefangmiangenggaojie、genggaotiaolidejinxiushengzhang。

bifangfanqieshimingfa,tashiyizhongjianlveyixingdeshichenbanlifangshi(shishenme),caozongfangshishibashimingqiegecheng25fenzhongyiduan,dingnaozhong,mei25fenzhongxiexiyici(zenyangzuo),youyurenzhuanyijihejingshendeshichenshiwuxiande(weishenme)。neimo,zheileishimingfangshimianqiandexingdongluojijiujingshishenme?midishiquantihejubudesiwei,yejihuazhengweiling,badaichulidequantichaifenhongyigegejubu,duiqibieliezhiguijiezonghe、guijie、fenlei、chuli,zuichubachulidejubulianjie、ronghuichengpangzade、yichulidequanti。shejidaoleluoji,shifoushibiannenggouhuoxuezhile?guranbuneng!zanmenzuishaohaixuyaozaishenyibu:zheiduanshichenbiranshi25fenzhongma?guranbushi!jinxiuzheyaozhaodaoheshibenshendeshichen,anbenshendeganchuganranhejiepailaiding(zhaodaowobenshen),tongshijinxiuzhehaiyaosilvheceyankaoshi,zheilei“xingdongluoji、banshisiwei”chuheshishiming,haiheshibenshenrenshengdenaxiefangmian(gengduozhaodaowobenshen,maijinlegenggaojie)。

zongshangsuoshu,“quanjingshishuxue”jiaodaoyiwei,suowei“rendeshendujinxiu”shizhijinxiuzhejingyouguochengmixin、zili、quangandaochangderenzhigoudang,duimouxietimu、jingxiang、shiwudengwanchenggengjiazhouquanwanquan、xiangxishenqie,dongdeshizhi、zhidijiaodian,naizhishejixinlingdedongdeheshuxi,bingshibenshenderenzhi、siwei、caineng、siweikanfadengxianggenggaojieduanhuogenggaotiaolishengzhang,jinerbushizhaodao“benshen”dejinxiu。

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